AYURVEDIC HERBSJEERAKADVAYA: Morphology, Therapeutic Uses, Benefits, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, and Dosages

JEERAKADVAYA: Morphology, Therapeutic Uses, Benefits, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, and Dosages

Cuminum cyminum Linn.
Family – Umbelliferae

Habitat / place of origin

Cuminum cyminum native to the Irano-Turanian Region. Also found in Egypt and Central Asia.

Biological classification

  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
  • Division: Tracheophyta
  • Subdivision: Spermatophytina
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Order: Apiales
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Genus: Cuminum L.
  • Species: Cuminum cyminum L.

Introduction To Jeerakdvaya

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, which is dried – are used in the cuisines of many cultures in both whole and ground form. Although cumin is thought to have uses in traditional medicine, there is no high-quality evidence that it is safe or effective as a therapeutic agent. 

JEERAKADVAYA

Synonyms of ABC Herb

Sanskrit  : Ajaji, Jiraka, Ajajika

Assamese: Jira

Bengali:  Jeera, Sadajeere, Shahajeere, Jeere

English:  

Gujarati: Gholu Jeerum, Shakanu Jeerum, Jeeru, Sadu Jeerum,

Hindi:  Safed Jeera, Jeera, Sada Jeera, Sadarana Jeera

Kannada: Jeerige

Kashmiri:  Safed Zoor

Malyalam:  Jeerakam

Marathi:  Jire, Pandare Jeere

Oriya: Dhalajeera, Dalajira, Jira

Punjabi: Safed Jira, Chitta Jira  

Tamil :   Cheerakam, Shiragam,

Telugu : Jeelakari, Jelakara, Jeela Karara

Unani:  Zirah, Zirasafed

Morphology of ABC Herb

It grows up to 15-50 cm height with long, white roots and it is annual herbaceous plant

Leaves :  The leaves are 5-10 cm long, pinnate or bi-pinnate, with thread-like leaflets, blue green in color and are finely divided

Flower: Whitish-red flowers are on a compound umbel

Fruit :, a cremocarp, often separated into mericarps, brown with light coloured 4-6 mm long, 2 mm wide ridges ellipsoidal, elongated, tapering at ends and laterally it is slightly compressed , mericarps with 5 longitudinal hairy primary ridges from base to apex, alternating with  secondary ridges which are flatter and bear conspicuous emergences, seeds orthospermous, odour umbelliferous characteristic, taste, richly spicy.

Flowering time:  flowers in June and July.

Medicinal Parts of ABC Herb

Seeds

JEERAKADVAYA

Plant variety

According to sushrutha                             

  • shukla
  • Peeta

According to Dhanvantari nighantu     

  • Jiraka
  • Shukla jiraka,
  • Krishna jiraka,
  • Vanya jirah

According to Shodala nighantu                

  • Upakunchika,
  • Shukla jiraka,
  • Krishna jiraka

According to Kaiyadeva nighantu       

  • Shukla jiraka,
  • Krishna jiraka,
  • Kaali kaakaa

According to madanapala nighantu     

  • Shwetha,
  • Upakunchika,

 Shyaama

Chemical Composition of ABC Herb

 Various chemical constituents such as

  • Volatile oil 2.5 to 4.5%,
  • 10% fixed oil,
  • Proteins, etc.
  • 30 to 50% cuminaldehyde in the volatile oil ,
  • a-pinene in small quantity
  • b-pinene,
  • Phellandrene,
  • cuminic alcohol
  • hydrated cuminaldehyde and hydro cuminine

Ayurvedic Properties of ABC Herb

Rasa (Taste) :   Katu ,

Guna (Quality) : Laghu , Ruksha ,

Virya (Potency) : Ushna

Vipak (Post Digestive Effect):  Katu

Karma (Pharmacological Actions) of ABC Herb

Dosha Karma : It Is Kapha-Vata Shamak

Sansthanik Karma (General Indications ): Lekhan , Shothhar, Vednasathapan

Pachnasansthan (Digestive System ): Rochan, Deepan, Pachan, Vata Anuloman, Shool Parshamn, Grahi, Krimighan

Raktvahsansthan (Cvs): Utejak, Rakt Shodhak

Mutravahsansthan (Urinary System ): Mutral

Prajanana Sansthan (Reproductive System ): Garbhashaya Shothhar, Satanya Jananana, Vrishya

Tavha (Skin ): Tavak Dosh Har

Tapkarma: Jawarghan

Katuposttik, Balay

Qualities/Effects on Tridosha of ABC Herb

It reduces the kapha and vata dosha by its ushna virya and increases pitta simultaneously. 

Formulations of ABC Herb

  • Hingwastak Churna
  • Dhatri Rasayan
  • Jeerakarishtam
  • Yogaraj Guggul
  • Hingvadi churna
  • Jirakadyarishta
  • Jirakadimodaka
  • Hinguvacadi curna
  • jiraka taila
  • Jirakadya churna

Therapeutic Uses of ABC Herb

  • Gulma
  • Adhmana
  • Atisara
  • Grahani
  • Krumi
  • Chardi
  • Kshaya
  • Kushta
  • Visha
  • Jvara
  • And indicated as Ruchya, Kturasyukt, Agni Deepak, Deepan, Jwarnashak, Pachak, Vrushya, Balkarak, Pittkark, Kapha Nashak, Garbhashaya Vishuddhikrut, Chakshushya, Grahi, Sangrahi

Dosage of ABC Herb

3-6 gm OD / BD per day after food.

Anupan : hot water or honey or even  ghee

How can you consume ABC Herb?

  • For boils or aching body apply paste of cumin seed with water which gives relief from pain.
  • Regular intake of boiled water with ground jeera to lactating mothers, to increase the  breast milk and which further reduces inflammation of uterus.
  • To prevent bleeding from gums & strengthens them massage roasted jeera with rock salt and apply on the gums regularly. Don’t roast the jeera in any kind of oil . Grind it when used
  • In common cold take ginger and jeera tea and it Will immediately provide relief.
  • To reduce frequency of stools and soothes colon roast jeera with pomegranate juice.

Benefits of ABC Herb

  • Worm infestation
  • Bloating, gaseous distension of abdomen
  • Fever
  • Aconitum ferox poisoning
  • Skin diseases
  • Chronic respiratory disorders leading to emaciation
  • Useful in indigestion
  • It helps in increasing the appetite and promotes the digestion
  • Used in abdominal tumor, and bloating
  • Used in malabsorption syndrome
  • Used in irritable bowel syndrome
  • It is used in  nausea and vomiting
  • Used in cold, cough,
  • It is used to treat respiratory diseases like tuberculosis
  • It is used in kapha diseases,hiccups and menstrual disturbances
  • It is also used in treatment of piles, skin diseases and leucorrhea,
  • It increases the libido and sperm count in males as it is natural aphrodisiac
  • It is very good for eyes.
  • It is widely used in the treatment of fever specially jirna jawar or chronic fevers
  • It gives stamina and strength.
  • It also promotes lactation in mothers.
  • It is very effective for heart and it prevents heart related diseases.
  • It is very much useful in diarrhea,
  • It is helpful in diabetes also.
  • It helps in  improving the immunological strength.
  • It promotes salivary secretion as stimulates the taste buds
  • It is a very good natural antioxidant.
  • It helps in weight loss
  • It reduces the cholesterol level.
  • Improves taste
  • Improves digestion strength
  • Improves intelligence
  • It cleanses and detoxifies the uterus. So it is mostly  used in postpartum care of the mother.

Side Effects of ABC Herb

  • Cumin is likely safe when orally taken as food amounts and possibly safe when taken by mouth in appropriate medicinal qualities. Rarely there any side effects of cumin are  known. 

Safety Precautions of ABC Herb

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding: There is not reliable information about the safety of taking jeera in pregnant or breastfeeding. Stay on the safe side and so it is best to avoid its use.
  • Bleeding disorders. Cumin might slow blood clotting. In books it said that cumin may make bleeding disorders worse.
  • Jeera may lower blood sugar levels in some people. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use cumin.
  • Surgery: Cumin might lower blood sugar levels.  It might interfere with blood sugar levels, so  control during and after surgery. Stop the use of  cumin at least 2 weeks before the scheduled surgery

Antidote of ABC Herb

Nutmeg is the ultimate antidote . It particularly act by distracting from the flavor.  nutmeg may not be a suitable for all dishes. 

Substitutes & Adulterants of ABC Herb

Substitute:

  • Caraway
  • Ground coriander

 Adulteration: Cumin Seed – Adulteration with Grit and Sand 

References & Further Reading

● DRAVYAGUNA VIGYAN = PV SHARMA
https://ayushvedah.com/druginfo.php?drugid=257
https://www.easyayurveda.com/2013/03/13/cumin-seed-benefits-usage-side-effects-ayurveda-details/amp/
https://www.bimbima.com/ayurveda/medicinal-uses-of-cuminjeera-seeds/383/?amp#vernacular_names

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